Tuesday, February 28, 2006

Transdermal L-Deprenyl Approved as Treatment for Depression

The FDA has now approved a transdermal patch containing L-Deprenyl (Selegiline) as treatment for depression. This comes as a very interesting move as selegiline is not a true anti-depressant in the sense that it's not an SSRI or MAOI. Selegiline has been formally sold in the US, under the brand name Eldepryl, as a treatment for Parkinsons disease because it keeps dopamine from breaking down. It also works as an MAO-B in low doses, but as a true MAOI at much higher doses. Selegiline has been used in a wide variety of off label uses, including as a "smart drug" to enhance cognitive function. It has also been used by people in the life extension crowd to possibly help extend their life as studies in rats has shown it contains this possibility.

Selegiline sold for off-label uses has often been towted as a type of "miracle drug" for all the abilities and uses it has. It has been used to treat patients who have damaged brain function due to MDMA poisoning and even as a type of nutritional supplement because it increases the levels of the antioxidant Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD).

The drug itself has a very interesting history, including the story of one man who was sent to prison for selling the drug over the counter. There is also a very good article on it at Avant Lab's magazine, unfortunately it is going through maintaince at this time and I don't have access to it. However, you can find a cached copy of Part 2 through Google.

In the mean time, read The History of Deprenyl.

FDA Approves Emsam (Selegiline) as First Drug Patch for Depression
Lowest Dose can be used without Restrictions Required of MAOI
Class of Depression Drugs

The Food and Drug Administration today approved Emsam (selegiline), the first skin (transdermal) patch for use in treating major depression. The once a day patch works by delivering selegiline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor or MAOI, through the skin and into the bloodstream. At its lowest strength, Emsam can be used without the dietary restrictions that are needed for all oral MAO inhibitors that are approved for treating major depression.

"Emsam provides a significant advance because at least in its lowest dose patients can use the drug without the usual dietary restrictions associated with these types of drugs known as MAO inhibitors,“ said Dr. Steven Galson, Director for the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Major depressive disorder is a common psychiatric condition in the U.S. population. Symptoms of depression include general emotional dejection, withdrawal and restlessness that interfere with daily functioning, such as loss of interest in usual activities; significant change in weight and/or appetite; insomnia; increased fatigue; feelings of guilt or worthlessness; slowed thinking or impaired concentration; and a suicide attempt or suicidal ideation.

MAO inhibitors usually require specific dietary restrictions because when combined with certain foods they can cause a sudden, large increase in blood pressure, or “hypertensive crisis”. A hypertensive crisis can lead to a stroke and death. Symptoms of a hypertensive crisis include sudden onset of severe headache, nausea, stiff neck, a fast heartbeat or a change in the way your heart beats (palpitations), sweating, and confusion. Patients who have these symptoms should get medical care right away.

The lowest dose of the MAOI patch, which delivers 6 milligrams (mg) of the medication over a 24 hour period, can be used without such dietary restrictions.

The Emsam patch will be made available in three sizes that deliver 6, 9, or 12 mg of selegiline per 24 hours. The patch is a matrix containing three layers consisting of a backing, and adhesive drug layer, and a release liner that is placed against the skin.

Emsam has been shown safe and effective for treatment of major depressive disorder in two 6-8 week studies and also in a longer-term study of patients. The data for EMSAM 6mg/24hr support the recommendation that a modified diet is not required at this dose. Patients are advised to change the patch once a day. The more limited data available for EMSAM 9mg/24hr and 12mg/24hr do not rule out food effects so that patients receiving these higher doses should follow dietary restrictions that advise them to avoid certain foods or beverages. This includes foods and beverages such as aged cheese and wine.

The only common side effect of Emsam detected in placebo-controlled trials was a mild skin reaction where the patch is placed. There may be mild redness at the site when a patch is removed. If the redness does not go away within several hours after removing the patch or if irritation or itching continues, patients are advised to contact their doctor.

Another side effect that was seen less commonly was light-headedness related to a drop in blood pressure.

The manufacturer and distributor of this new product have planned an educational campaign for patients and prescribers to ensure that advice on dietary modifications for the higher patch strengths is adhered to. They plan to conduct both patient and health care provider surveys to assess the effectiveness of the educational campaign. The manufacturer and distributor will also closely track reports of adverse events, and follow-up on those that might represent hypertensive crises, to further ensure the safe use of this product.

Although the effects of heat on the patch are not known, the drug labeling advises health care professionals and patients about the possible effects of direct heat applied to the Emsam patch. Direct heat may result in an increased amount of the drug absorbed from the patch. Patients should avoid exposing the patch to heating pads, electric blankets, heat lamps, saunas, hot tubs, or prolonged sunlight.

Like all approved antidepressants, this product carries a warning of increased suicidality in children and adolescents.

EMSAM was developed by Somerset Pharmaceuticals, Inc. In December 2004, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Somerset entered into an agreement that provides Bristol-Myers Squibb with distribution rights to market EMSAM after approval in the United States. Selegiline was initially approved in capsule form for use in Parkinson's Disease.
From the FDA Press Release

1 comment:

Deep Reet said...

Deprenyl is an effective anti aging drug that is used to treat Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. Deprenyl is approved drug to treat depression, anxiety and to protect brain cells. Deprenyl selegiline helps to increase dopamine levels in brain.

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